How to make a variable global in javascript?

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In JavaScript, variables can be declared with different scopes, including global and local scopes. A global variable is accessible from anywhere in the code, while a local variable is only accessible within a specific function or block of code. In this article, we will explore how to make a variable global in JavaScript, allowing it to be accessed and modified from anywhere in the program.

Using the window Object

One way to create a global variable in JavaScript is by attaching it to the window object. The window object is the global object in a browser environment and serves as the container for all global variables. To make a variable global, you can simply assign it as a property of the window object. For example:

window.globalVariable = ‘Hello, world!’;

Now, the variable `globalVariable` can be accessed from anywhere in the code using `window.globalVariable` or simply `globalVariable`. However, it’s important to note that polluting the global namespace with too many variables can lead to naming conflicts and make the code harder to maintain.

Using var Outside Functions

In JavaScript, variables declared with the `var` keyword outside any function are automatically global variables. For example:

var globalVariable = ‘Hello, world!’;

By declaring the variable outside any function, it becomes accessible from anywhere in the code. However, it’s generally recommended to use the `var` keyword within functions to create local variables and avoid polluting the global scope.

Using let or const Outside Blocks

In modern JavaScript, you can also create global variables using the `let` or `const` keywords outside any block of code. These keywords were introduced in ECMAScript 6 (ES6) and provide block scoping, but when used outside blocks, they behave similarly to the `var` keyword. For example:

let globalVariable = ‘Hello, world!’;
const anotherGlobalVariable = 42;

Both `globalVariable` and `anotherGlobalVariable` are accessible from anywhere in the code. However, it’s important to note that unlike `var`, `let` and `const` variables are not attached to the window object.

Using Modules

With the introduction of ES6 modules, JavaScript provides a more structured way to create global variables. By exporting variables from a module, they can be imported and used in other modules, effectively creating global variables within the module system. For example:

// module.js
export const globalVariable = ‘Hello, world!’;

// main.js
import { globalVariable } from ‘./module.js’;

console.log(globalVariable); // Output: Hello, world!

By exporting the `globalVariable` from the `module.js` file and importing it in the `main.js` file, we can use it as a global variable within the module system.


In JavaScript, there are several ways to make a variable global. You can attach it to the window object, declare it with the `var` keyword outside functions, use `let` or `const` outside blocks, or leverage the module system with ES6 modules. However, it’s important to use global variables judiciously to avoid naming conflicts and maintain code readability.