What entities make up the secondary mortgage market?

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The secondary mortgage market plays a crucial role in the overall functioning of the mortgage industry. It is a complex network of entities that facilitate the buying and selling of mortgage loans after they have been originated by lenders. In this article, we will explore the various entities that make up the secondary mortgage market and understand their roles and interactions.

Government-Sponsored Enterprises (GSEs)

Fannie Mae: Fannie Mae, officially known as the Federal National Mortgage Association, is a government-sponsored enterprise established in 1938. It operates in the secondary mortgage market by purchasing and guaranteeing mortgage loans from lenders. Fannie Mae then pools these loans and sells them as mortgage-backed securities (MBS) to investors.

Freddie Mac: Freddie Mac, or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, is another government-sponsored enterprise created in 1970. Similar to Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac purchases mortgage loans from lenders, pools them, and sells them as MBS to investors. Both Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac play a significant role in providing liquidity to the mortgage market.

Private Investors

Investment Banks: Investment banks, such as Goldman Sachs and JPMorgan Chase, participate in the secondary mortgage market by purchasing mortgage loans from lenders or buying MBS directly. These institutions often create their own mortgage-backed securities and sell them to investors.

Hedge Funds: Hedge funds are private investment funds that actively participate in the secondary mortgage market. They invest in mortgage loans or MBS, seeking to generate profits through various strategies, including buying distressed mortgages at a discount or betting on the performance of specific mortgage-backed securities.

Mortgage REITs

Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs): Mortgage REITs are specialized REITs that invest primarily in mortgage-related assets, including mortgage loans and MBS. These entities generate income from the interest payments on the mortgages they hold or the MBS they own. Mortgage REITs provide an avenue for individual investors to gain exposure to the secondary mortgage market.

Loan Servicers

Banks and Non-Bank Servicers: Loan servicers are responsible for collecting mortgage payments from borrowers on behalf of the loan owners. They handle various administrative tasks, including maintaining escrow accounts, managing delinquencies, and processing loan modifications. Loan servicers play a crucial role in ensuring the smooth functioning of the secondary mortgage market by providing ongoing servicing for the loans and MBS.


The secondary mortgage market is composed of several entities that work together to facilitate the buying and selling of mortgage loans. Government-sponsored enterprises like Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, private investors such as investment banks and hedge funds, mortgage REITs, and loan servicers all play vital roles in this market. Their interactions and activities contribute to the overall liquidity and stability of the mortgage industry.


1. Fannie Mae: www.fanniemae.com
2. Freddie Mac: www.freddiemac.com
3. Goldman Sachs: www.goldmansachs.com
4. JPMorgan Chase: www.jpmorganchase.com